Picture naming assesses object recognition, lexical retrieval, output phonology, phoneme articulation, and connecting pathways between these systems (Pillay et al., 2017). Subjects are asked to name pictures of common objects from a variety of categories. In addition to overall accuracy, category effects are measured by comparing performance on manmade artifacts, living things, body parts, and musical instruments. Many patients have been reported to show differential loss of knowledge and naming ability for these categories (Damasio et al., 2004; Forde & Humphreys, 1999; Gainotti, 2000; Warrington & Shallice, 1984). Finally, the relative proportion of different error types has implications regarding the locus and type of processing defect (Dell et al., 1997; Schwartz et al., 2011).
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